The development of casting
Casting is a kind of metal thermal processing technology that mankind has mastered relatively early, and it has a history of about 6000 years. China has entered the heyday of bronze castings between 1700 and 1000 BC, and the craftsmanship has reached a very high level. Casting is a method of pouring liquid metal into a casting cavity suitable for the shape of the part, and after it has cooled and solidified, the part or blank is obtained. The cast material is mostly a metal that is originally solid but heated to a liquid state (for example: copper, iron, aluminum, tin, lead, etc.), and the material of the mold can be sand, metal or even ceramics. According to different requirements, the methods used will be different.
The Simuwu Fangding Ding weighing 875 kilograms from the Shang Dynasty in China, the Yizun plate from the Zenghou in the Warring States Period, and the translucent mirror from the Western Han Dynasty are all representative products of ancient casting. Most of the early castings were tools or utensils used in agricultural production, religion, life, etc., with a strong artistic color. At that time, the casting process developed in parallel with the pottery process and was greatly influenced by the pottery.
In 513 BC, China cast the world's first cast iron part, the Jin Kingdom cast-shaped tripod, weighing about 270 kilograms. Europe also began to produce iron castings around the eighth century. The emergence of iron castings has expanded the scope of application of castings. For example, in the 15th to 17th centuries, Germany, France and other countries successively laid many cast iron pipes to supply drinking water to residents. After the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, industries such as steam engines, textile machinery, and railways emerged. Casting entered a new period of service to large industries, and foundry technology began to make great developments.
Entering the 20th century, the rapid development of casting, one of the important factors is the advancement of product technology, requiring better mechanical and physical properties of castings, while still having good mechanical processing performance; another reason is the machinery industry itself and other The development of industries such as chemicals and instruments has created favorable material conditions for the foundry industry. For example, the development of detection methods has ensured the improvement and stability of casting quality and provided conditions for the development of casting theory; the invention of electron microscopes has helped people to penetrate into the microscopic world of metals, explore the mysteries of metal crystallization, and study the theory of metal solidification. , To guide casting production.